Free forging is a processing method that uses impact force or pressure to deform the metal freely in all directions between the upper and lower anvil surfaces, and obtains the required shape and size and certain mechanical properties without any restriction, which is referred to as free forging. The tools and equipment used in free forging are simple, versatile and low in cost. Compared with casting blanks, free forging eliminates shrinkage holes, shrinkage porosity, pores and other defects, so that the blanks have higher mechanical properties. Forgings are simple in shape and flexible in operation. Therefore, it has special significance in the manufacture of heavy machinery and important parts.


The basic processes of free forging include upsetting, drawing, punching, bending, torsion, offset, cutting and forging.


A forging process that reduces the height of the blank and increases the cross-sectional area. The upsetting process is mainly used for forging gear blanks and round cake forgings. The upsetting process can effectively improve the blank structure and reduce the anisotropy of mechanical properties. Repeated upsetting and drawing can improve the morphology and distribution of carbides in high-alloy tool steels.

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Upsetting mainly has the following three forms:

1. Complete upsetting. Complete upsetting is to place the blank vertically on the anvil surface, and under the hammering of the upper anvil, the blank will be plastically deformed with a height reduction and an increase in the cross-sectional area.

2, the end upsetting. After the billet is heated, one end is placed in a drain or mold to limit the plastic deformation of this part, and then the other end of the billet is hammered to make it upsetting. The upsetting method of the leaking disc is mostly used for small batch production; the method of upsetting the tire mold is mostly used for mass production. Under the condition of single-piece production, the part that needs upsetting can be heated locally, or after all heating, the part that does not need upsetting can be chilled in water, and then upsetting is performed.

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